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Decision-making situations in which the specific outcome is not known, but in which the array of outcomes and their probabilities are known.

Risk and Uncertainty

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In game design, "risk" refers to the potential for adverse outcomes or negative consequences associated with player decisions or actions. It is a fundamental element that introduces uncertainty and challenge, creating a dynamic and engaging gaming experience.

In a role-playing game, for instance, players may face the risk of combat encounters where decisions about resource allocation, party composition, and tactical choices carry consequences. Engaging in battles presents the potential for rewards such as experience points and loot, but failure could result in setbacks, character deaths, or other negative outcomes.

Risk is contrasted with "uncertainty". Where risk is found in a system like a dice roll, where the outcomes and probabilities of each outcome are mostly known; uncertainty is found in systems where there is limited understanding of the outcomes and/or their probabilities. The players who are new to a game is likely to experience some uncertainty before they begin to learn what action produces what outcome and at with what success rate.

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