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Decision-making situations in which the outcomes and/or their probabilities are not known.

Risk and Uncertainty

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Uncertainty in game design refers to the intentional introduction of unpredictable or unknown elements within a game's mechanics, systems, or narrative. This design principle aims to create dynamic, engaging, and replayable experiences by challenging players to adapt, make decisions under incomplete information, and experience a sense of surprise or discovery.

Risk is contrasted with "uncertainty". Where risk is found in a system like a dice roll, where the outcomes and probabilities of each outcome are mostly known; uncertainty is found in systems where there is limited understanding of the outcomes and/or their probabilities. The players who are new to a game is likely to experience some uncertainty before they begin to learn what action produces what outcome and at with what success rate.

Narrative uncertainty involves branching storylines, multiple endings, or choices with unknown consequences, allowing players to shape the narrative based on their decisions. Games like "The Witcher" series incorporate narrative uncertainty, where player choices influence the plot and character relationships.

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